- ,

18.07.2011 _

, - , , .

­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ 9 ­ 1890 ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­.

­, ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ '­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­­쳿 ­. ϳ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­.

­ 20 ­ ­, ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­­­. ֳ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ "­­­ ", ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­.

­ ϳ­­-­­­ ­, , ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ (­ - ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­, ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­', ­­­ ­ ), ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­.

­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ -­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­.

³­­­ ­­­ г­­ ­ 1916 ­, ­ ­­ . ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­  ­.

  . : exo.in.ua

17 ­­ 1917 ­ ­ - ­ , ­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­.

­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­ 1918 ­ ­­­ ­ (­­­­-­­­­­­) ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­.

­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ , ­­ ­­­ ­­.

­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­.

­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­.


1922 ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­­­ ­ ѳ­­­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­  ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­  ­  ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­. ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­.

­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­. ­­­­­­  ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­. ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­쳿 ­.

5 ­­ 1928 ­ - ­ .  ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ "­­­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­", ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­  ­ 28 ­­ 1928 ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­ "­­­ ­­­­ ­­".

­ , ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­. 2 ­­ 1930 ­ ­­ ­­­­­ -­ ­ ­­-­­­­. ­­­ ­ (­ ­­­ ­­­) ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­   ­­­.

­­­ 1933 ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­  ­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­.

­­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­ , ­ ­­­ ­. ³ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­. ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­.

  . 볺

­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ (­ ­ - ­) ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­, ­­­­ ­ ­. " ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­... ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­". ­ ­' ­­ ­­ ­.

­ ­ ­ ­ ­­.   ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ 1940 ­.

­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ " ­­­". ­­ ­­, ­­ ­, ­­­­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­.

" ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­. ó­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ", - ­ ­­ ­ ­.

­­ 1940 ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­. ­­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­.

­ "­­­" ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­­­. ­­­­, ­­, ­­­.

­ 1941 ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­. ­­ ­­­­­, ­­­ ­, ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­.

-­­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­, ­, ­ ­­­. ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­:

"­­­ 1918 ­ ­­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­ , ­­, ͳ­­­. 1920 ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ 20- ­ ­­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­.

­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ , ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ 1918 ., ­­­ ­­­­­­ ­. ­, ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­".

ͳ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­.

. ͳ 1941

­ ­ ­ ­­   ­­­­­ ­­­ "ѳ­ ­­", ­ ­ ­ "­­" ­­ ­­­. ϳ­ ­­ ­ ­ - ­糿 ­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ "­­­" ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­. 

­ 1942 ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ () ­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ " ­ ­­!" "­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­".

­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­­ ­­: "­­­ - ­­ ­", "­­­­ ­ ­", ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ "­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­".

ֳ­­, ­ 1942 ­ ­ " ­­ ­ ­" ­ ­­ ­­ ­'­­ ­­­ ­­­­ "­ ­­­ ­­­" ­­­­ ­­ ­­­.

  䳿 , ͳ .

­ ­­ ­­ , ­ () ­, ­­ ­ 1996 ­ ­­­ ­ ­­: " ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ 17-20 ­, ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­".

­­ ­ " ­­ ­" ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­'­­  ­­­ : ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­. ϳ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ .

 ­­ 1943 ­ ­' ­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ (­) ­­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ '­­ . ij­­ ­ ­­­-­­­ ­ 1943 ­.

­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­. ­ , ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ () ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­'­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­.

­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ "ѳ­ ­­", ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ - ­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­ "­ ­­", "ó­".

10 ­ 1944 ­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­­: ­­, ­­, ­. ­ "­­" ­­­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­.

11 ­ 1944 ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ '­ ­­­ ­­ . ϳ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ .

ϳ .

15 ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­: "­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­䳿 ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ , ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­".

" ­ ­­­­, ­­­­ ­­ . ­­­­ ­ , - ­ ­­ ­­ ­­䳿 ­­ ­. - - ­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­­ ­­. ­­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­ - ­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­".

­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­䳿 ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ . ­­ , ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­.

"", 1- . , - .

­ ­­, ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ , ­­ ­­ ­­䳿 ­­­­ ­­­­ , ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ , ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ - ­ ­­ ­­㳿.

­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ , ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­䳿, ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­, ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­㳿. ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­.

­­­ ­ 21 ­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­:

1.   ­ ­­ ­.
2.   ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ (­­­ ­­) ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­.
3.   ­­ ­­ ­­­.
4.   ­­ ­ ­­­ (­­ ­­­) ­­ ( ­­­ .).
5.   ­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­.
6.   ­­ ­­ ­­­.
7.   ­­ ­ ­­ (­­­ ­­­) ­­ ­­.
8.   ­­ ­­ ­­­.
9.   ­ ­­.
10. ­­­ ­­ .
11. ­­ ­­ .
12. ­

"­ ­ - ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­. - ­­­­-­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­. ­­ ­­­ , , ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­".

- ­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ( "") 15 ­ 1944 ­.

³­-­­­­ ­­ ­-­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, "­" . ­ ­ (­ ­­ ­ ), ­­ ­­ ͳ­­­­ 1941-1943 . ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ "­­­ ­­ ­".

 ˳ 1- . - . : wikipedia.org

­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­䳿 , ­­ ­ ­­ (­­). ³ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ .

­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­ -  ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­  ­­­ ­­ ­­­.

­ ­ ­­­­ ­ . ­ ­? ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­.

ϳ

­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ -30 ­­­ ­­ г­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­-­­ ­­­­ ­­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­쳿 ­­­­ ­­ ­-­­ 1944 . ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­.

­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­­. ­ ­­­­ , ­­, ­­­: "­ ", "­­­ ­­­­ '­", ­ ­ 1944 ­, "­­­ ­­" ­­­­­ . ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­.

­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­. ­­­­ ­ 1944 . ­ ­ ("­"), ­­ ­­ ("­"), ­ ("­­").

.

­­­­­ 25 ­ 1944 . ­­­ . ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ 1943 . ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ г­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ("­­"). ­ ­­ . ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­ "".

­ ­ ­­ . ­ ­­­­ ­­ г­­ ­­ ­ 1944 . "­" ­­ -ϳ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­ . ­­ ("­"), . ­ ("­­"), ­­ ­­­ "­­", . ­ ("­"), ­­ ­ "­" . ­ (""), ­ '­­ "­­ " . ­ ("­­­") . (­ 10 ).

䳿

­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­-­­ ­­­­ ­­­­.

­ ("­"), ­­ ­­­ 1944 . ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ . ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ , ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ () ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­.

­ ­­ ­­䳿 ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ - ­ ­ -­. 25 ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­­: ­­ ­ - ­­, ­ ­­ - ­­ ­, ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­.

5 ­ 1944 ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­ (­­­­ ­) ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­­ .

­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ - "­­­", ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ - "­"   ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­.

  . - .

3 ­ 1944 ­ ­ ­ , ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­쳿 ­­­ . ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ³­­, 12 ­­ 1944 ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­.

­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­' ­­ ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­­­: "­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­ ­­­­ , ­­ ­­ ­ 48 ­".

­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. ³ ­ ­­ . ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­. , ­ ­­­ ­­ ­.

­­­ "­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ..", ­­­­ ­ '­­­ ­ ­.

­ ­­­ ­­, 1947 . ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. 1925 ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­  ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ 1919-. ij­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­.

­­, ­­­ ­­ ( 1924 1931 ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ) ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­  "­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­...

­ ­­ - ­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­­­­ ­­, ­­­ , , ­, - ­­-­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ - ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­... ­­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­ г­­. ֳ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­".

  . 1958 , . : dt.ua

­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ . ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ . ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ "­". ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­­­ ­­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­   ­­­­ ­ "" ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­.

10 ­ 1948 ­ (­ ­­­ ) ­­ ­ 25 ­ '­­ ­ " ­­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­".

ѳ­' ­­­­­ ­ ­ ϳ­ ­­­ ­­ - ­­­ ­ ­­­. ҳ­ ­­ 1954 ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­볿, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­'­ ­ ­.

­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ̳­­ , ­­ ­­­ ­'­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­.

  1946 . ,

­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­ , ­­­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­.

"­­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­, ­­­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­䳿 ­­ ­ 17 ­­ 1955 ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ '­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­".

'

­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­­ ­ ­­ , ­­­ ­­­­, ­ 16 ­ 1960 ­ . ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ 5753.

1960 .

­ 1 ­ 2004 ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ Գ­­ ­­­­­ ­­. 1994 ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­, "­­­ ­­­­ 1948 ­", ­ ­­ 1995 ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ 1928 1930 .


г­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­'­  ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ 5 ­ 2006 ­. 27 28 ­ 2007 ­ ­­­ ­'­ ­­­­ . ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ..­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­.

г­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ 11 ­­ 2008, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­.

: " "



: , XX , , , , , , ,



+: "",

15.04.2019 _ ³

- , . !
- ! . .

" ". 140- ˳

12.04.2019 _

". ". 1919

11.04.2019 _

̳ . ,

05.04.2019 _
ֲ
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